Franco was also the focus of a personality cult which taught that he had been sent by Divine Providence to save the country from chaos and poverty. Historian and philosopher Ernst Nolte argues that fascism arose as a form of resistance to and a reaction against modernity. Mussolini: The Last 600 Days of Il Duce. , By 1936, the tensions between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany reduced and relations became more amicable. One can think of an empire, that is, a nation, which directly or indirectly guides other nations, without the need to conquer a single square kilometre of territory. The Fascists began their attempt to entrench Fascism in Italy with the Acerbo Law, which guaranteed a plurality of the seats in parliament to any party or coalition list in an election that received 25% or more of the vote. Therefore for the fascist, everything is in the state, and no human or spiritual thing exists, or has any sort of value, outside the state. Mussolini’s seizure of power in Italy with the March on Rome brought fascism international attention. Angelo Oliviero Olivetti formed a pro-interventionist fascio called the Fasci of International Action in October 1914. , "Fascist era" redirects here.  Mussolini had held antisemitic beliefs prior to becoming a Fascist, such as in a 1908 essay on the topic of Nietzsche's Übermensch, in which Mussolini condemned "pallid Judeans" for "wrecking" the Roman Empire; and in 1913 as editor of the Italian Socialist Party's (PSI) Avanti! Jim Powell, "The Economic Leadership Secrets of Benito Mussolini". 202. On the eve of the March on Rome, the leadership of the PNF declared that "a Jewish question does not exist in our country and let us hope that there never shall be one, at least not until Zionism poses Italian Jews with the dilemma of choosing between their Italian homeland and another homeland". Fascist propaganda aggrandized this event, known as “March on Rome,” as a “seizure” of power because of Fascists’ heroic exploits. Esau's Tears: Modern Anti-Semitism and the Rise of the Jews. The Doctrine of Fascism (1932) described the nature of Italian Fascism's totalitarianism, stating the following: Fascism is for the only liberty which can be a serious thing, the liberty of the state and of the individual in the state.  He claimed that italianità had assimilatory capacity.  Italian Fascism historically sought to forge a strong Italian Empire as a Third Rome, identifying ancient Rome as the First Rome and Renaissance-era Italy as the Second Rome. , The Fascist government model was very influential beyond Italy. The conditions of economic hardship caused by the Great Depression brought about significant social unrest around the world, leading to a major surge of fascism and in many cases, the collapse of democratic governments. Upon achieving power, Primo de Rivera sought to resolve the economic crisis by presenting himself as a compromise arbitrator figure between workers and bosses, and his regime created a corporatist economic system based on the Italian Fascist model. Japan’s expansionist vision grew increasingly bold.  The Fascist regime produced literature on Nice that justified that Nice was an Italian land based on historic, ethnic and linguistic grounds. Bolshevism, fascism, and capitalism: an account of the three economic systems. New theories of social and political psychology also rejected the notion of human behavior being governed by rational choice, and instead claimed that emotion was more influential in political issues than reason. On the other hand, there are at least five points we might keep in mind as we assess Italy’s past and future: From EM 18: What Is the Future of Italy? Many of Japan’s political elite aspired to have Japan acquire new territory for resource extraction and settlement of surplus population. One early admirer of the Italian Fascists was Adolf Hitler, who, less than a month after the March, had begun to model himself and the Nazi Party upon Mussolini and the Fascists. Mussolini rebuked Nazism's Nordicism, claiming that the Nazis' emphasizing of a common Nordic "Germanic race" was absurd by saying that "a Germanic race does not exist. In Russia, 80 percent of the managers of the Soviets are Jews, in Budapest 17 out of 22 people's commissars are Jews.  Afterwards, the Fascist government in public ceremonies rose the national tricolour flag along with a Fascist black flag. Italian authorities committed ethnic cleansing by forcibly expelling 100,000 Bedouin Cyrenaicans, half the population of Cyrenaica in Libya, from their settlements, slated to be given to Italian settlers. In response to revolt in the Italian colony of Libya, Fascist Italy abandoned previous liberal-era colonial policy of cooperation with local leaders.  The Council claimed that the obvious superiority of the ancient Greeks and Romans in comparison with the ancient Germanic tribes made it inconceivable that Italian culture owed a debt to ancient Aryan Germans.  Signed in early August 1921, Mussolini and the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) agreed to the Pact of Pacification, which was immediately condemned by most ras leaders in the squadrismo.  Since the movement's early years, there were a small number of prominent openly antisemitic Fascists such as Roberto Farinacci. In Germany, it contributed to the rise of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, which resulted in the demise of the Weimar Republic and the establishment of the fascist regime, Nazi Germany, under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. Life as he understands it means duty, elevation, conquest; life must be lofty and full, it must be lived for oneself but above all for others, both near bye and far off, present and future. The Nazis, led by Hitler and the German war hero Erich Ludendorff, attempted a “March on Berlin” modeled upon the March on Rome, which resulted in the failed Beer Hall Putsch in Munich in November 1923.  In addition, racial intermixing in the population in general was also blamed for Rome's downfall, claiming that Italians as a whole were a hybrid of races, including black African races. The party who received the most votes (provided they possessed at least 25 percent of cast votes) won two-thirds of the parliament; the remaining third was proportionately shared among the other parties, thus the Fascist manipulation of liberal democratic law that rendered Italy a one-party state. Beginning in 1922, Fascist paramilitaries escalated their strategy from attacking socialist offices and homes of socialist leadership figures to violent occupation of cities. Fascism began in Italy as a result of the heavy changes that happened in the country during World War I and was a response to the heavy socialism and communism that was present during the years after the first World War.
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